Modeling of voltage source converter based HVDC transmission system in EMTP-RV
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Voltage Source Converter (VSC) applications include but are not limited to HVDC, Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) devices such as STATCOM, SSSC, UPFC and Wind generators and active filters. The VSC based HVDC system is a feasible option for bulk power transmission over long or short distances and the grid integration of renewable energy sources in existing transmission and distribution systems. The main requirement in a power transmission system is the precise control of active and reactive power flow to maintain the system voltage stability. The VSC operating with the specified vector control strategy can perform independent control of active/reactive power at both ends. This ability of VSC makes it suitable for connection to weak AC networks or even dead networks i.e. without local voltage sources. For power reversal, the DC voltage polarity remains the same for VSC based transmission system and the power transfer depends only on the direction of the DC current. This is advantageous when compared to the conventional Current Source Converter (CSC) based HVDC system. Furthermore, in case of VSC, the reactive power flow can be bi-directional depending on the AC network operating conditions. In this thesis, a 3-phase, 2-level, 6-switch VSC connected to an active but weak AC system at both ends of the HVDC link is developed using EMTP-RV. The VSC-HVDC transmission system model is developed using both direct control and vector control techniques. The direct control method is an approximate method in which the active power, AC voltages at both ends of HVDC link and DC link voltage are controlled directly by using PI-controllers. In vector control method, closed loop feed-forward control system is used to control the active power, reactive power at both ends and DC voltage. By comparing the simulation results, it is concluded that the vector control method is superior to the direct control because of the removal of the coupling between control variables to achieve the independent control of active and reactive powers at both ends of the HVDC link.