Analysis of alternative energy options for buildings
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The importance of utilizing different types of energy and their technical application is discussed. Awareness around the globe about the world energy crisis and its critical environmental condition has put more emphasis on the use of renewable energies in every corner of life. It is a well‐known fact that global warming, inefficient use of energy and greenhouse gases are damaging the environment, species and human life drastically. These issues will be discussed in recently conducted research. To address the crucial state of our environment, two simultaneous scenarios are considered. Initially, energy conservation and the switch to a low carbon/no carbon fuel are studied. As for energy conservation in buildings, smart methods in the use of energy in buildings are discussed. Based on different research reported, humans must change their attitude toward the use of resources, and in particular, be conscientious about energy consumption. Next, renewable energy promises a suitable alternative to energy needs in this century, and the best means to overcome the environmental issue and energy crisis is discussed. The practical methods of calculation for solar technology equipment, ground source heat pumps, and wind turbines are explained. In the application part of the study, four buildings are chosen as case studies; two of them from residential sectors, one is a commercial/institutional building, and the fourth is an industrial building. A ground source heat pump for heating and cooling, a solar water heater for heating space or hot water, and a photovoltaic panel for generating electricity are designed for the case studies. Even projects under hybrid systems combined from two technologies are designed. 36 different energy options are calculated for the four case studies. Results show that if a target is reducing CO2 emissions, what systems are the best. In contrast, when decision making is based on budget, what system is the first choice? Not only are technology, environmental protection and cost the main parameters for deciding on renewable technologies, but so are reliability, installation, maintenance and ease of use. Hence, renewable energy systems are categorized based on a broad vision.