The effects of select non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on green and brown hydra
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Effluent pharmaceuticals are released at low concentrations into aquatic ecosystems through waste water treatment plants (WWTPs). Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are important contaminants in water cycles. In this study, several NSAIDs were assessed for their potential toxicity to Hydra. Chronic toxicity was evaluated using three NSAIDs on two different species of Hydra, Hydra viridissima and Hydra littoralis. Several negative correlations were observed between ibuprofen, naproxen, diclofenac toxicity and select endpoints in Hydra. However, these correlations generally occurred in only 25% of the 7 day exposure toxicity tests performed. Thus, environmentally relevant concentrations of ibuprofen, naproxen, and diclofenac did not have statistically significant chronic effects on either species of Hydra tested. Differences in endpoints between species were observed in only 25 to 50% of the experiments undertaken. Thus, current effluent concentrations of ibuprofen, naproxen and diclofenac are not likely deleteriously affecting this level of aquatic food webs receiving such contaminants.