Development and analysis of new integrated energy systems for sustainable buildings.
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Excessive consumption of fossil fuels in the residential sector and their associated negative environmental impacts bring a significant challenge to engineers within research and industrial communities throughout the world to develop more environmentally benign methods of meeting energy needs of residential sector in particular. This thesis addresses potential solutions for the issue of fossils fuel consumption in residential buildings. Three novel renewable energy based multigeneration systems are proposed for different types of residential buildings, and a comprehensive assessment of energetic and exergetic performances is given on the basis of total occupancy, energy load, and climate conditions. System 1 is a multigeneration system based on two renewable energy sources. It uses biomass and solar resources. The outputs of System 1 are electricity, space heating, cooling, and hot water. The energy and exergy efficiencies of System 1 are 91.0% and 34.9%, respectively. The results of the optimisation analysis show that the net present cost of System 1 is $ 2,700,496 and that the levelised cost of electricity is $ 0.117/kWh. System 2 is a multigeneration system, integrating three renewable energy based subsystems; wind turbine, concentrated solar collector, and Organic Rankine Cycle supplied by a ground source heat exchanger. The outputs of the System 2 are electricity, hot water, heating and cooling. The optimisation analysis shows that net present cost is $ 35,502 and levelised cost of electricity is $ 0.186/kWh. The energy and exergy efficiencies of System 2 are found to be 34.6% and 16.2%, respectively. System 3 is a multigeneration system, comprising two renewable energy subsystems— geothermal and solar to supply power, cooling, heating, and hot water. The optimisation analysis shows that the net present cost of System 3 is $ 598,474, and levelised cost of electricity of $ 0.111/kWh. The energy and exergy efficiencies of System 3 are 20.2% and 19.2%, respectively, with outputs of electricity, hot water, cooling and space heating. A performance assessment for identical conditions indicates that System 3 offers the best performance, with the minimum net present cost of $ 26,001 and levelised cost of electricity of $ 0.136/kWh.