Design and control of FACTS-based high performance microgrid
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The current power grid introduces many limitations and challenges in a world that is heavily dependent on electricity. Many government agencies, utility companies, researchers and engineers in the electric power industry have envisioned of transforming the existing grid into MicroGrid. To facilitate domestic consumers’ ratings and needs, a microgrid has been developed that includes Distributed Energy Resources (DER). It is expected to be an intelligent, sustainable, resilient and reliable power grid suitable for the 21st century economy. Some of the main concerns for any grid are power quality and efficiency as well as reactive and active power reliability for consumers. To manage active and reactive power Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) technology is used to improve power quality and efficiency. Since FACTS technologies have been developed, much research has been done to acquire more accurate and reliable techniques and algorithms to implement FACTS in the power system. The current microgrid scheme implemented with FACTS, produces a highly efficient response monitored with different KPI indicators of the microgrid. A newly developed AC/DC microgrid design with FACTS technology includes DER, which consist of DC batteries, wind Turbines, PV systems (Solar photovoltaic system) and diesel generators. Modulated Power Filter Compensators (MPFC) for AC and Green Plug Filter Compensators (GPFC) for DC are used as FACTS controller. Optimization based on genetic algorithms and intelligent control through fuzzy logic, are defined to optimize the performance of the microgrid. Optimization and intelligent control are accomplished by self-adapting the controller gains and converters gains to achieve the best microgrid energy utilization, stabilization of voltage and reduction inrush current conditions. Key performance indicators are as follows: bus voltages stabilizing, feeder losses reduction, power factor enhancement, improvement of power quality and reduction of the total harmonic distortion at AC interface buses that are compared with and without FACTS criterion. The AC/DC microgrid is modeled in both grid and islanded connected modes.